General • Last Updated 2/13/2024

Should you use a public IP address or a private one?

Navigate public and private IP choices in IoT to gain insights for enhancing security and network performance.


By Emily Bowen

Did you know the efficiency and security of your Internet of Things (IoT) network is directly tied to the type of IP address you use? As the IoT market grows and cyber threats increasingly target IoT devices, a solid grasp of IP addressing can significantly optimize your deployment's security and efficiency.

The choice between a public IP address and a private IP address is a crucial one with wide-reaching impact. This decision directly influences how your IoT devices interact with the broader internet and within their local networks. In this detailed guide, we’ll explore the specific roles these two types of IP addresses play in IoT systems. You'll learn how the right choice can either open your devices to global connectivity or protect them within a secure local network, as well as which use cases are better suited for which option.

You’ll get actionable insights that will empower you to optimize your IoT infrastructure for better performance and enhanced security. After reading, you’ll have a thorough understanding of IP addressing—a critical piece of knowledge for anyone using IoT (smart) devices within their home or business.

What is an IP address?

An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique string of numbers and, in some cases, letters that allows a device to be uniquely identified and communicate over a network. This connection enables data exchange and connectivity with other devices on the internet or within a local network.

This identification is essential for various online activities, from browsing websites to sending emails and connecting IoT devices for remote access and control. Understanding the two types of IP addresses—public and private—is key to managing network interfaces and internet connectivity in IoT systems.

The Telnyx network supports both public and private IP addresses. Contact our team to determine which option is right for your use case.

Public IP addresses

These addresses serve as the unique identifier for devices in the vast expanse of the internet, much like a postal address in the physical world. This uniqueness is essential for direct communication and accessibility from any point on the global network.

What are public IP addresses?

A public IP address is a globally unique identifier assigned to a device, allowing it to be accessed and identified over the internet. Unlike private IP addresses, which are localized to specific networks, public IPs are designed to be recognized universally across the entire internet. This universality is critical for devices that need to interact with other systems beyond their local network, especially in IoT applications where remote accessibility is key.

The role of public IP addresses

Public IP addresses allow IoT devices to connect and communicate with systems on external networks directly, facilitating real-time data exchange, remote monitoring, and control from any location globally. This direct and uninterrupted connectivity is essential for IoT applications in areas such as telemedicine, smart cities, and industrial automation, where instant access to devices and data is critical.

Dynamic vs. static public IP addresses

Public IP addresses are classified into two types: dynamic and static. Dynamic IP addresses vary periodically, offering flexibility and often enhanced privacy. In contrast, static IP addresses are fixed and don’t change, providing a stable, unchanging point of contact for essential IoT services.

While public IP addresses offer numerous benefits, particularly in terms of global accessibility and direct communication, they also present unique challenges and considerations, especially when compared to private IP addresses.

Private IP addresses

Unlike public IP addresses, which are unique and accessible on the global internet, private IP addresses are designed for use within local, internal networks. They’re the digital equivalent of internal phone extensions within a company, facilitating communication and data transfer within a closed environment while remaining invisible to the external internet.

What are private IP addresses?

A private IP address is a non-global identifier used exclusively within a single network, typically in residential, educational, or corporate settings. Unlike public IP addresses, which are assigned by global internet authorities and must be unique worldwide, private IPs are assigned and managed locally. They allow multiple devices within a local network to communicate with each other efficiently without directly exposing each device to the broader internet.

The role of private IP addresses

The primary function of private IP addresses is to facilitate seamless, secure communication and data transfer between devices on the same local network. They’re instrumental in creating a controlled and secure environment for internal network activities. This security is particularly crucial in IoT settings where numerous devices, such as sensors and controllers, interact within a single network, often handling sensitive or critical operational data.

Ranges of private IP addresses

IP address ranges have been designated for private use, including blocks like 192.168.x.x, 10.x.x.x, and 172.16.x.x to 172.31.x.x. These ranges are recognized and reserved globally for private network use, ensuring they don’t overlap or conflict with public IP addresses assigned on the internet. This demarcation facilitates efficient network management and maintains the integrity of both private and public network spaces.

The clear delineation between private IP addresses' inward-focused, secure nature and the outward-facing, globally accessible public IP addresses underscores the importance of understanding their differences.

Why understanding the difference between public vs. private IP addresses matters

Grasping the distinction between public and private IP addresses is crucial because it directly affects the security, efficiency, and accessibility of your network, especially in IoT environments. Failing to understand these differences can lead to security breaches, inefficient network operation, and accessibility issues, potentially causing significant operational and financial setbacks.


Public IP addresses expose devices to the global internet, significantly increasing the risk of cyberattacks. This exposure requires robust security protocols to protect against hacking or data breaches. A lack of understanding here could leave devices vulnerable to attacks, compromising data and network integrity.

Private IP addresses are used within a secure internal network, inherently shielding devices from direct external threats. This built-in protection is crucial for sensitive operations. Misunderstanding in this area might lead to an unnecessary exposure of devices that should ideally remain isolated within a secure network, thereby increasing the risk of internal data leaks or breaches.


Public IP addresses make devices accessible from anywhere on the internet, which is vital for remote operations. Not understanding this need could result in failure to remotely access or control devices when needed, hampering operational flexibility and responsiveness. \

Private IP addresses restrict device accessibility to the local network, ensuring internal operations remain private and secure. Overlooking this need could lead to mistakenly assigning public IPs to devices that shouldn’t be externally accessible, potentially exposing sensitive internal systems to external risks.

Understanding the difference between public and private IP addresses is vital for maintaining network security, ensuring communication efficiency, and managing device accessibility. This knowledge directly influences strategic decisions about network configuration and security measures, impacting the overall success and safety of your network operations.

Practical considerations for choosing between public and private IP addresses

Choosing the right IP address for your IoT devices involves considering use cases, security concerns, accessibility and control, costs and resources, and network scale and complexity. For instance, a public IP address might be essential for devices that require remote access, while private IPs are better suited for internal network communications.

ConsiderationPublic IP addressPrivate IP address
Use caseIdeal for devices needing remote access or internet services (e.g., surveillance cameras or remote sensors).Best suited for devices within a controlled environment (e.g., smart home systems or internal office networks).
Security concernsHigher exposure to cyber threats requires stronger security measures.Naturally safer for data-sensitive operations due to reduced exposure.
AccessibilityEnables easier remote access and control, crucial for many IoT applications.Offers more control over network traffic and user access within the network.
Cost and resourcesMore expensive and resource-intensive due to global uniqueness and security needs.Generally more cost-effective and simpler to manage locally.
Network scaleSuitable for large-scale networks needing external communication.Preferable for smaller or more contained networks focused on internal communication.

As you weigh the benefits of public versus private IP addresses for your IoT devices, it's clear that it’s not a “one size fits all” answer. The right choice depends on your specific requirements and objectives. Deciding whether you need a public IP address, a private one, or a mix of both requires a thoughtful approach tailored to your business's unique needs and specific use cases.

Making this distinction is where the importance of choosing an IoT provider comes into play. You’ll want to look for a flexible, adaptable provider that offers customized solutions to fit your needs.

Deploy your IoT devices with Telnyx’s public IP mapping

The decision between public and private IP addresses significantly influences the performance and security of IoT deployments. At Telnyx, our team is committed to addressing this complexity with bespoke solutions designed to meet your specific challenges.

With our patented mobile network, we provide support for both public and private IP addresses, ensuring unparalleled adaptability to your project's needs. Our SIM cards are set to default with private IP addresses, but we also offer the option of public IP mapping to SIMs. This level of flexibility sets Telnyx apart in the IoT market, as many competitors limit their offerings due to security concerns.

However, as you’ve seen above, sometimes public IP addresses are actually the wiser choice. Whether your project benefits more from the broad accessibility of a public IP or the secured environment of a private IP, Telnyx is equipped to deliver with our flexible, secure IoT solutions.

Talk to our experts today to learn how Telnyx can deliver the optimal IP solutions for your specific needs, helping you make the most of your IoT strategy with both flexibility and security.

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